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Sowing eggplant seeds for seedlings without soil

Sowing eggplant seeds for seedlings without soil



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Garden plants

Hello, dear friends - summer residents and gardeners!
I want to share with you a new method of sowing seeds for me, which will certainly interest gardeners.

Seed sowing methods

I have already told you many times how I sowed seeds in rolls. Sometimes I added 3% hydrogen peroxide to the water as a stimulant. I sowed seeds in a container, on paper, while disinfecting them with boiling water.

And today I will tell you about a procedure with a double effect, the advantage of which is that, firstly, the seeds are disinfected simultaneously with sowing, and secondly, the seedlings appear much faster than with ordinary sowing.

Seeding method with double effect

For the procedure you will need:

  • a small piece of oilcloth from a milk bag;
  • toilet paper or paper towel;
  • disposable cup;
  • seeds;
  • some warm water to dampen the paper;
  • transparent plastic bag;
  • boiling water.

Today I will sow two varieties of eggplant: Fabina and Faram hybrids. The seeds have remained with me since last year. I lay the oilcloth on the table, black side up, and lay several layers of toilet paper on top of it (Figures 1 and 2). If the paper is two-layer, then one layer will be enough.

To prevent the paper from fidgeting over the oilcloth, I moisten it with warm water, then spread the seeds along the top edge, 1 cm away from it (Fig. 3). If you are sowing a lot of seeds, keep a distance of 1 cm between them, but if there are few seeds, the distance between them can be increased.

I put another layer of paper on top of the crops, after which I roll the whole layer into a roll, starting from the end. I write the date and the name of the variety on a roll with a permanent marker and insert the roll into a disposable cup with the seeds facing up (Fig. 4). Then I do the same procedure with the seeds of the second grade and place the roll in the same one in a glass.

Now you need to boil water in a kettle, pour a little boiling water into a glass, immediately cover it tightly together with the crops with a plastic bag (Fig. 5). Hot water and steam will disinfect the seeds and stimulate the seeds to awaken. In this form, I leave the crops until the water cools completely, then I remove the bag in which the condensate has settled, turn it inside out, put it on the glass with the dry side and tie it tightly again. Keep crops until shoots appear in a warm place.

In this way, I have already germinated the seeds of bell pepper and another variety of eggplant. Germination rates are very high, which means that the method works. When the first leaves appear on the seedlings, I cut the seedlings into separate cups.

I suggest you try my double-acting method. I wish you a good mood, healthy seedlings and excellent harvests.

Video of seed germination without soil

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the family Solanaceae
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online

Sections: Fruit Garden plants Solanaceous Plants on B Growing seedlings


Soil for eggplant

Soil for eggplant should be light and fertile with neutral or weak acidity. Its optimum level is 6.0-6.7 pH. Soil manufacturers offer a variety of ready-mix options. For seedlings, experts do not advise using soils consisting of one peat. It is better to prepare the land for sowing yourself.

For a universal seedling soil, 4 components are needed: 2 parts of garden soil and one part of humus (compost), peat and sand. A little ash is added to the mixture to reduce the acidity of the peat. Additionally, a complex mineral fertilizer is introduced into the soil - 50-80 g per bucket of soil.


Planting eggplants for seedlings at home

Eggplant seedlings have to be planted at home: the greenhouse option is suitable only in the south of the country. Although, of course, if there is a heated greenhouse, then this can be done anytime and anywhere. But we will focus on our apartment and in advance, in winter, we will stock up on seeds, soil for sowing and convenient containers.

Soil and containers for eggplant seedlings

The issue with containers for seedlings is solved simply: it is best to immediately sow seeds in peat pots. They should be medium to large in size. But if you want to temporarily save space in the apartment, you can initially use a small box: although this vegetable does not really like transplanting, if you have some experience, you can do this.

Therefore, even if there was no wooden box, we take a cardboard box from under the juice (preferably 1.5 or 2 liters), cut off one of the large sides, and make a dozen small holes in the other to drain excess water during irrigation. But we still buy peat pots.

If we are going to grow only a dozen plants, the easiest way to buy soil is in a store. You just need to choose one with the word "eggplant" on the package, and not the cheapest one: under the guise of good soil, they often sell ordinary land dug somewhere under the fence ... If the primer is from a reputable manufacturer, it can be used immediately, without preparation. Although it is better to keep it on the balcony for several days and freeze it.

More often, summer residents make up the soil themselves, somewhere in all sorts of ways to get the necessary ingredients. For eggplants, one of the necessary ones is peat. With its use, optimal soil mixtures are obtained. If you mix peat with good garden soil (1: 1) and add ten percent of clean sand, it will be ideal. A good handful of wood ash and twenty grams of urea must be immediately added to the bucket of the resulting mixture. Or, instead of this mixture, 30-40 g of azophoska. Other mixtures are possible, for example, peat, humus and sawdust (2: 2: 1).

When buying ready-made soil, it is advisable to take one that is intended specifically for eggplants.

Your soil must be disinfected: you never know what was contained in the garden soil or humus? Oven calcination, which is often used for this purpose, is not very comfortable to perform in a city apartment, so the easiest way is to spill the soil with a warm light solution of potassium permanganate. This work should be done about 5-7 days before sowing the seeds. Pour part of the prepared mixture into a box, return the rest to the balcony while waiting for the seedlings to be transplanted into pots.

Presowing seed preparation

You need to decide on the variety of eggplants in advance and choose a zoned one. It should be borne in mind that in the central regions in unprotected soil, only early or very early varieties or hybrids of eggplant can be grown. It is worth looking at what the variety is recommended for: for greenhouses or open ground. If the seeds are not very fresh, even in winter you should take the time and check them for germination.

When buying seeds, one must not only look at the colorful and enticing label, but also carefully read all the information on the back.

True, now the seeds are expensive, there may be only a dozen in a bag, but it is better to know in advance whether to buy new ones. To check, you need to soak at least six pieces in water for a day, then spread on a wet cloth and place in a warm place (about 30 ° C), systematically checking the condition of the seeds and adding some water. If in 7-10 days at this temperature half of the seeds hatch, it is already normal.

Branded, not too cheap seeds can not be pickled, serious organizations try to sell only healthy ones. But it will be safer to bathe them for half an hour in a dark solution of potassium permanganate, and then wash it well with plain water. If the subsequent planting of seedlings in open ground is expected, it is necessary to harden them. For this, the seeds are placed in a wet cloth and, within 4–6 days, the dislocation between the heat and the refrigerator is changed at intervals of 10–12 hours.

Eggplant is one of the few vegetables, when growing, one should not neglect pre-sowing seed treatment with growth stimulants.

To do this, you can use, for example, Epin-Extra or Zircon strictly according to the instructions on the label. They contribute to an increase in germination, as well as the further development of seedlings. Typically, this processing lasts about a day.

After all the measures described, some of the seeds will surely hatch, and their further germination is not necessary. Seeds prepared in this way are ready for sowing. Can fresh seeds be sown from a bag immediately, dry? Sure you may. In the right conditions, they will surely rise. Only they will be stretched to do this: the first sprouts may appear in 5-7 days, and the last ones will linger for two weeks, or even longer.

Thus, the complete set of seed preparation operations is as follows.

    We check the seeds for germination.

Before germination testing, you can even manually sort the seeds by size

We disinfect them in a solution of potassium permanganate.

To disinfect seeds, you need to prepare a strong solution, approximately the same as in the figure on the left.

We harden the seeds in the refrigerator.

It is the soaked seeds that are hardened in the refrigerator

We process it with growth stimulants.

Growth stimulants are used only according to the instructions for them.

Rules for planting seeds for seedlings

If everything is prepared and the time has come, you can start sowing. The sowing itself is quite simple. Eggplant seeds are quite large, they can be easily taken with tweezers one at a time and laid out in a box with soil. You can pre-make grooves about 1.5 cm deep, or easier - to spread the seeds according to the 5 x 5 cm scheme, and then cover them with a small layer of soil. Immediately after sowing, the garden in the box must be carefully watered with clean water and covered with foil.

Instead of water, you can put a layer of snow on the soil: snow water promotes better seed hatching.

So, most often when sowing prepared seeds, the following steps are performed.

    Fill the box or box with soil.

The box can be of any size, but at least 7-8 cm deep

Lay out eggplant seeds according to the 5 x 5 cm scheme.

Seeds are laid out according to the selected scheme manually

They are covered with a layer of soil 1.5–2 cm thick.

The seeds are covered with the same soil in which they were planted.

Lay snow on top with a layer of 3-5 cm.

"Watering" crops with snow is safer and healthier than water

The film will create a greenhouse effect to improve seedling

Until the first loops appear, the temperature must be maintained at 25-28 ° C. Seedlings should appear in a week or one and a half. Further - the most important event: the box must be placed on a cool, well-lit windowsill. Within 5-7 days, it will be necessary to prevent the temperature from rising above 16-18 o C, the night heat is especially terrible: instead of developing roots, the seedlings will quickly stretch up and turn into lifeless strings.

Then the temperature should be raised to 23–25 ° С, at night it can be slightly lower. Seedlings will need such warmth and bright light until they are planted in the garden. If the window sill is poorly lit, it is necessary to equip the backlight: a fluorescent lamp, a diode lamp and or a special phytolamp. Long daylight hours are not required, but during daylight hours the light intensity should be sufficient. If the light falls from the side, the box must be turned towards it from time to time. And periodically water the seedlings moderately with warm water.

Since we have sown seeds in a box, soon the seedlings will need to be sown into separate peat pots with the same soil composition. They must be immediately placed in any sturdy pallet and must not be removed until transplanting into the garden: with prolonged use, the walls of the pots soften greatly from watering. There is no need to save on the size of the pots: if the roots grow through the walls, the seedlings will have to be transplanted again, together with the pot, into more solid containers.

Since the eggplant seedlings grow unevenly, picking is performed selectively, as the fastest specimens acquire two true leaves. It is better to discard the most frail seedlings right away. And the largest ones, after good watering of the seedlings, should try to dig out of the box along with a lump of earth, without disturbing the roots.

Unlike tomatoes, pinching the roots when picking is undesirable. They can only be shortened slightly if they are so branching that they do not fit in a peat pot. If it is possible to remove the seedlings together with a large soil clod, and they are successfully placed in a new dwelling, it is better not to touch the roots. The transplanted seedlings are well watered and harvested for several days in partial shade, after which they are returned to normal conditions, and they continue to grow.

Of course, you could immediately sow seeds in pots. But it would be required to sow at least 2 seeds each, beware of incomplete germination, and all the seedlings would take up the entire window sill at once. Yes, and the material of the pots does not withstand a long stay of seedlings in them, so pre-sowing in a common box makes sense.

Video: sowing eggplants for seedlings


What stages must the seeds go through

Many summer residents and gardeners with experience have a negative experience of self-cultivation of pepper and eggplant seedlings. As a rule, these crops give poor germination, they do not like picking very much, they slowly adapt to a permanent place. As a result, the gardener loses most of the seedlings, which affects the harvest of vegetables.

To reduce seedling loss, you must follow all recommendations and do not skip any of the steps below. So, pepper and eggplant seedlings need to be planted in several stages:

  1. Determining the timing of sowing seeds.
  2. Seed selection.
  3. Preparing seedling containers.
  4. Mixing soil for seedlings.
  5. Processing and hardening of seeds.
  6. Germination of seeds.
  7. Planting seeds in the ground.
  8. Waiting for shoots.
  9. Care for young seedlings.
  10. Picking (if necessary).
  11. Hardening of seedlings before planting in a permanent place.
  12. Transferring seedlings to the beds or to the greenhouse.

Calculating the seed sowing date

To correctly determine the time of sowing seeds for seedlings, you need to know the ripening time of the selected variety, as well as the climatic features of the region. Basically, the growing season of bell peppers is from 90 to 140 days, for eggplant this time is slightly longer - 100-150 days.

In the southern regions of Russia, seedlings of peppers and eggplant, most gardeners take out on the ground at the beginning of May, for the middle lane - this is the middle or end of May. In the north and in the Urals, heat-loving peppers and eggplants are most often grown in greenhouses or hotbeds, but there are varieties that are suitable for the climate of these regions. In this case, it is necessary to transfer seedlings to the beds not earlier than the beginning of June, when the air temperature stabilizes and the threat of night frosts disappears.

Considering that sprouts from pepper and eggplant seeds appear on the 8-15th day after sowing, you can calculate the approximate time for planting seedlings - this is the end of February or the beginning of March. It was during this period that gardeners and summer residents of the greater territory of Russia fill the windowsills of their apartments with boxes with seedlings of vegetables.

Selection and preparation of seeds for planting

First of all, the gardener must decide on the variety of pepper or eggplant. If this is not the first experience of growing seedlings on your own, in principle, you can choose any varieties.

And for those who are just trying to grow their seedlings, it is better to buy seeds of the most unpretentious varieties of pepper and eggplant. Usually, such varieties do not have high yields or outlandish fruits - as a rule, these are the most common, average, crops. But these plants tolerate transplanting much better, are not so whimsical in care, provide a low, but stable yield.

Experienced gardeners are well aware of all the rules for growing seedlings of each crop, and for beginners, comprehensive information about this is indicated on the seed package. It is easy to calculate a good agricultural company from the information on the seed package, there should be:

  • ripening time of pepper or eggplant
  • landing pattern
  • recommended soil
  • temperature range
  • information about the endurance and yield of the variety
  • data on disinfection and other seed treatments.

Having decided on the seeds, you can proceed to the next stage - processing. As a rule, expensive seeds of proven agricultural firms have already gone through all the necessary preparations for planting. You can verify this by looking at the information on the packaging, and some companies color the processed seed material or seal the seeds in colored capsules, like a glaze.

When the seeds were collected by a summer resident from their own last year's harvest, all preparatory measures must be performed in the following sequence:

  1. Soak the seeds in a 1% manganese solution, 20-30 minutes is enough. After that, the pepper seeds and eggplant are washed under a stream of cold water. This procedure is aimed at disinfecting the seed.
  2. The germination of pepper and eggplant seeds is facilitated by special growth stimulants. You can prepare such a mixture yourself: zinc, manganese, sulfate and boric acid, ammonium molybdate. The seeds are placed in this composition for a couple of days, after which they are washed and dried.
  3. Etching is usually carried out in an industrial environment. Basically, this is the application of pesticides (granules or powder) to the seeds.
  4. Hardening is necessary for absolutely all eggplant and pepper seeds, otherwise the plants of these heat-loving crops will die with a sharp drop in ambient temperature. You need to harden the seeds in several stages, alternately placing them in the heat and on the top shelf of the refrigerator. The time of each procedure is 10-12 hours, the number of temperature changes is about four.

These measures contribute to better germination, quick pecking of seeds, and rapid growth of seedlings.

Germinating seeds

Growing eggplant and pepper seedlings will be more effective if the seeds are germinated before planting in the ground. This stage will only take a few days (3 to 5), but the result will be much better.

For germination, pepper and eggplant seeds are placed on a damp cotton cloth or cotton pads. It is not recommended to use gauze or bandage for this purpose, as fragile sprouts often cling to the net of threads and break.

It is not necessary to pour too much water on the fabric - the seeds of pepper and eggplant should not float, it is enough to maintain a constant humidity of the fabric or cotton wool.

Preparing seedling containers and filling them with soil

As mentioned earlier, it is better to immediately grow seedlings of peppers and eggplants in individual pots - these plants do not tolerate picking well. For these reasons, peppers and eggplants are rarely grown in large boxes; small plastic pots are the most suitable containers for them.

The diameter of the pot for bell pepper seedlings is 4 cm, for eggplants, larger containers are needed - about 5 cm.

To further reduce the risk of damage to the seedlings of peppers and eggplants during transplanting, the seeds of these crops can be sown in peat glasses. Such seedlings are transferred into the ground together with the container - peat decomposes in the ground, without interfering with the growth of roots.

One thing can be said about the soil for peppers and eggplants - these crops love light and crumbly soils, rich in nutrients and oxygen. Each experienced gardener has his own "recipe" for preparing the substrate for the seedlings of these whimsical plants. The most successful of them are mixtures:

  • sod land, sand, humus
  • peat, humus, sawdust
  • garden soil, manure humus
  • sod land, peat, vermicult.

The prepared substrate must be disinfected; the best way is to calcine the soil in the oven. You can treat the soil with special antibacterial agents.

Prepared containers for pepper and eggplant are filled with a substrate, pouring a layer of no more than 7 cm. The earth is spilled with settled warm water with the addition of manganese and left for 10-12 hours.

Sowing seeds

Germinated seeds should be sown immediately after being removed from a damp cloth. Two grooves are made in the soil of each cup. Their depth should be about 1 cm, and the distance between them should be at least two centimeters. It is better to plant two seeds at once in each container, subsequently, when each plant has three true leaves, the weaker sprout must be removed.

The seeds are carefully placed in the ground and sprinkled with a substrate. There is no need to tamp the earth, pepper and eggplant seeds love the air. Watering the newly sown seeds is also not necessary, the first watering should be enough for them not 4-5 days.

It is better to cover containers with plastic wrap or glass. This helps to retain moisture and maintain the temperature inside the seed cups.

For germination, pepper and eggplant need a temperature of about 28 degrees, so for the first few days it is necessary to keep the containers with seeds in a very warm place.

As soon as the first shoots appear, the film must be removed, otherwise the plants will turn yellow and disappear.

Seven days after germination, the temperature must be reduced to 23 degrees. During this period, the root system is formed in seedlings of eggplants and peppers. After 5 days, you can return to the previous temperature regime.

Seedling care

Taking care of peppers and eggplants is quite difficult - these crops require constant attention to themselves. Therefore, at the stage of growing seedlings, the gardener needs:

  • water the plants about once every five days. At the same time, at first it is better to do this with a spray bottle or a teaspoon, so as not to wash out the ground near tender sprouts. Subsequently, watering can be done with a watering can, being careful not to pour water on the leaves. Seedlings behind glass can get sunburn through water droplets. For watering eggplant and pepper seedlings, you need to use soft water, boiled or settled. Melt or rainwater is ideal.
  • Pepper and eggplant seedlings love nutritious soil, these plants need regular fertilization. To stimulate the growth of seedlings and the growth of green mass, it is necessary to fertilize it with nitrogen compounds.
  • If there is not enough sunlight, peppers and eggplants should be artificially illuminated. To do this, use lamps installed at a distance of 15 cm from the plants. They are turned on for 10-12 hours a day, the rest of the time the seedlings must "sleep", they are covered with a thick cloth, and the lamps are turned off.
  • It is imperative to maintain the temperature regime. In the daytime, the room should be about 25 degrees, and at night the temperature must be reduced to 15 degrees. This will help the eggplants and peppers get used to the natural conditions that await them in the garden.
  • Seedlings begin to air when there are three true leaves on the stems. First, open the window on the window, near which the containers with eggplant and pepper are located. Then the plants can be taken out onto the loggia or balcony. After 10-14 days, they begin to take seedlings outside, gradually increasing the time of their stay in the fresh air. 10 days before transplanting seedlings to the beds, young peppers and eggplants should calmly withstand the whole day in the fresh air.
  • Eggplant and pepper seedlings need to be prepared for planting. 10-12 hours before this, plants are watered abundantly with warm water. It is better to transplant on a cloudy day or do it in the evening when the heat subsides.


Open ground transplant

Planting seedlings in open ground occurs somewhat later than in greenhouses. Eggplants are very fond of heat, so they will feel comfortable if the outside air temperature does not drop below 20 C, and the top layer of the earth warms up to + 12 ... + 15 C. Based on the standard seasonal calendar, in the middle lane this weather comes closer to mid to late May, or even June. In 2021, special changes in the weather are not expected, so you should focus on this period. In the past, it is not necessary to plant eggplants, because if the temperature drops (especially at night), the plants will become unproductive.

In late spring - early summer 2021, the Moon will exert its influence on garden work in the following way:

Month Auspicious days Bad days
May 5, 12, 15, 16, 17, 24 3, 4, 10, 11, 25, 26, 30, 31
June 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 21, 22 1, 9, 10, 14, 15, 23, 24, 27, 28

The planting process itself is not too different from the manipulations carried out in the greenhouse. An exception will be the moment that eggplants may require a cover made of agrofibre, which will protect young seedlings from the cold at night. The material is stretched over arcs, which are installed over the beds.

The ripening time of the crop will depend on the variety chosen. For example, the early varieties ripen about 110 days after the first shoots appear, the middle ones - after 120, and the later ones - after 140.


Types and varieties of eggplant

Today there is a classification of eggplant, dividing this culture into 3 subspecies: European, Eastern and Indian.

  1. Eastern subspecies... Most of the varieties included in this subspecies are early and mid-early. The bushes of such plants are not very tall, spreading or semi-spreading. Thin stems and shoots are purple-green. Small green ovoid leaf plates have purple petioles and veins. Not very large fruits have a serpentine, pear-shaped, spherical, crescent or cylindrical shape, as well as a dark purple color. The flesh of the fruit is white or light green with a little bitterness.
  2. Western subspecies... It includes late and mid-season varieties. Bushes are semi-spreading or closed, they can be of medium height or high. The shoots are thick and green, with purple pigmentation at their tops, which is rather weak. On the surface of large leaf plates, elongated-ovoid, there is pubescence, they have a green color, in some cases there is a brownish tint in the region of the petioles and veins. The shape of relatively large fruits can be different, after they reach technical maturity, their color will change to purple-brown, purple-black, purple or dark purple. The pulp is colored white-green or white-yellow, it differs in varying degrees of bitterness.
  3. Indian subspecies... It is represented in culture quite widely, however, in the middle latitudes, the varieties included in this subspecies are not grown.

The most popular varieties of the western subspecies that are great for growing in mid-latitudes:

  1. Valentine... This early maturing variety is distinguished by its yield and resistance to tobacco mosaic. Black-purple fruits have a standard size of 5x26 centimeters. They have an elongated shape and taste great.
  2. Purple miracle... This hybrid is early, it is distinguished by its yield and resistance to wilting. Purple fruits weigh about 350 grams on average. The pulp has no bitterness and is light green in color.
  3. Czech early... It is a high-yielding early variety. Low bushes are compact and strong. The shape of the dark purple glossy smooth fruits is ovoid. The white-green pulp has no bitterness.
  4. Black handsome... This early maturing variety was created by Danish breeders. The height of the bush is about half a meter. The cylindrical fruits are very dark in color and weigh about 240 grams.
  5. Delicacy... Early variety. The bush reaches a height of 0.4 m. The dark purple fruits have white flesh without bitterness.
  6. Golden egg... This early hybrid is usually grown as an ornamental plant. The shape of the average size of the fruit is similar to a goose egg.
  7. Donskoy... This variety is medium-yielding. The bush is of medium height and is medium spreading. The fruit is pear-shaped, weighing about 180 grams.
  8. Epic... This early variety is high-yielding and unpretentious. The fruits have an unusual teardrop shape of a dark purple color measuring 10x22 centimeters.
  9. Donetsk fruitful... This early ripe variety has a dark color with fruits reaching 15 centimeters in length and 40 mm in width. They weigh about 160 grams.
  10. Black Beauty... This early maturing variety has a high yield. The fruits are very large, weighing about 0.9 kg.
  11. Maria... Dark purple, not very large fruits have an elongated shape, they weigh about 220 grams. The fruits ripen very quickly, due to which their not very large size is compensated.
  12. Barbentane... The early variety is distinguished by its yield and a long fruiting period. Fruits are shiny dark purple.
  13. Nautilus... The fruits of this mid-early variety are dark purple and saber-shaped, weighing about 0.5 kg. The variety grows well in a greenhouse.
  14. Arap... The height of a vigorous bush is about 100 cm. The length of the fruits is about 25 centimeters, they are painted in a very dark shade of brownish-purple.
  15. Albatross... The variety is mid-season and high-yielding. The height of the bush is about 0.5 m. The pear-shaped fruits of a violet-blue color weigh about 0.45 kg.
  16. Solara... This early variety is distinguished by its unpretentiousness and productivity. Large fruits of dark purple color weigh about 1000 grams.


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